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Treatment and Diagnostic Streptococcus agalactiae Infection

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Streptococcus agalactiae morphology culture and cell structure

 

Streptococcus agalactiae belongs to serological group B streptococcal (GBS) due to the antigen characteristics. Morphologically it is gram- positive, round -bearing chains in bacteria. On sheep blood nutrient media containing form around the colonies haemolysis (beta- hemolysis). Hemolysis is but usually less pronounced than that of group A streptococci. Visit: streptococcus-agalactiae.com

 

https://www.intechopen.com/source/html/45085/media/image1_w.jpg

 

Epidemiology

 

Group B streptococcus (GBS), also known as Streptococcus agalactiae,was once considered a pathogen of only domestic animals, causing
mastitis in cows. Although asymptomatic vaginal carriage of GBS was described in 1935, the first report of GBS sepsis in a neonate was not reported until 1964. Since the 1970s, GBS is recognized as one of the most common causes of neonatal infectious morbidity and mortality in developed countries. GBS causes significant maternal and perinatal morbidity, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, and urinary tract and other infections in the adult nonpregnant population. The virulence of S. agalactiae is related to the polysaccharide toxin it produces. Immunity is mediated by antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide and is serotype specific. Several serotypes are known, including Ia, Ib, Ic, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.

 

http://streptococcus-agalactiae.com/streptococcus_agalactiae.jpg

 

Pathogenesis and clinical pictures

 

S. agalactiae colonizes in the body of some animals, including cow, sheep, and humans without causing any harm.  The habitat of this microorganism is largely confined to the intestine and vagina in human and the mammary gland of cows and sheep. This microorganism also colonizes in the genital and/or intestinal tract of about 10-30% of pregnant women.[7] However, some can actually cause diseases in their neonates or immunocompromised mammals. S. agalactiae is the common cause of inflammation or fibrosis of mammary glands and adjacent areas in cows and sheep colonizing the surface of the teat and
duct sinuses. This species causes invasive bacterial infections in mostly neonates and rarely immunocompromised adults, most notably septicemia,  neumonia, and meningitis colonizing different locations including the faces, the nose, the umbilical cord, the ears, feces. Infection is spread between cows and/or sheep through the milker's hand, contaminated instrument, and the mouth of calves. Once infected, these mammals are likely to lose their reproductive capacity due to blocked milk channels through inflammation. Infection in humans is through genital and/or intestinal tract of pregnant women either during pregnancy or delivery and from other neonates or members of the hospital staff in the maternity hospital. "The interaction of this bacteria
with host protein and and the entry into host cells thereby represent important virulence traits."

 

 

 

Therapy

 

The neonatal sepsis due to GBS is because of the serious prognosis of the disease with a combination of penicillin G [(PENICILLIN GRUNENTHAL others) 300,000 IU / kg bw / day in 4-6 divided doses ] or ampicillin [(BINOTAL others) 200 mg / kg bw / day in 3 divided doses ] with an aminoglycoside [eg As gentamicin (Refobacin etc.) ] for at least 5 days treated (pronounced synergism between penicillins and aminoglycosides). Cephalosporins are an alternative to the penicillins. Isolates with reduced susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics or high levels of resistance to gentamicin come in Germany practically inexistent. The natural sensitivity of B-streptococci to penicillins but by a factor of 10 lower than that of group A streptococci. The percentage of isolates with resistance to erythromycin (Erythrocin, etc.) in all group B streptococci is given as approximately 10%.

 

In the detection of a B streptococcal colonization between the 35th and 37th week of pregnancy is suggested chemoprophylaxis at the time of birth. In question penicillin G are (initially 5 million IU iv and then 2.5 million IU iv every 4 hours until delivery) or ampicillin (2 g IV at the beginning and then 1 g IV every 4 hours until delivery). In penicillin allergy can clindamycin [(Sobelin others) 900 mg iv ] every 8 hours - not expressly approved in Germany with this indication) or erythromycin (500 mg administered intravenously every 6 hours) until delivery. With the use of erythromycin (about 10% in this country) should previously a sensitivity test can be performed to prevent a failure of prophylaxis of infection due to the resistance situation.

 

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The Off Grid Life

the off-grid life.

untied from the shackles of strife,

2017, the modern existence,

getting on the property ladder, how does anyone have a chance?
20, 25 or 30, forced to work to pay every bill,

going to work all hours, struggling to find a way, a life against our will,

needing the money from any form of work, mostly unprogressive, unhappy 
life passing by, frustrating, anger, decreasing self-worth, causing individuals to be snappy

unfulfilled, potentials are not met, working a job all day, unable to progress,

money is the key factor, for bills to be met, let me digress.

often they still aren't causing pain and suffering, stress and depression,

homelessness is rife through the country, a feeling of regression,

a feeling of being stuck, how to retrain and improve your careers?
speak to friends or family and the same conversation, doubts, and fears
if only another option was available,

one that was accepted and not just for the vulnerable,

the homeless, the people with nothing,

but how is this existence different? it is truly crushing,

once you can see that your life is consumed with working for money,

the soul has passed, your energy too, it can get so hard it's not even funny,

but who understands? in the face of consumerism, higher purchase, loans, and debt,

who is living a life, truly satisfied, and their dreams are met?

Not all people living off-grid are rich in cash!
but they aim for other needs; security in food & energy, it's worth a bash,


 

a growing transition for many people too,

it's not just for the hippies, the spiritual, it's for people like me and you,

think about it for a moment or two...

who would you be without your car, house and your possessions?
is that person you portray the real you? or do you blend in so people don't ask questions?
are you honest with your family and friends?

or do you sit behind a desk wishing it would end?
there is a wealth of knowledge of old traditions,

from a time when they lived without these conditions,

the conditions of social media, advertising, marketing ads or vlogs

when screen time didn't consume every waking hour, and children were fascinated with tadpoles transforming into frogs.

hours spent outside, climbing trees, playing at the park,

not allowed home unless it was tea time or had gotten dark.

 

a shift is happening, ecotherapy, wild schooling, bushcraft, and hikes,

forest schooling, homeschooling, people walking and out on their bikes,

scientists are noticing the effects on children's behaviors, reduced health issues,

ADHD,  also a boost in self-awareness, positivity, confidence and mental health issues

is it easier to sit a child down to hours in front of the tv, or ipad?

than it is to spend a few hours playing down the park with dad?

or baking a cake with mum, the importance of these skills are being misplaced,

in this consumerism world, with employees a number, in a life so fast-paced.

 

Off-grid living, the communities hidden away,

all they want is a parcel of land to look after their needs, but hey,

that's not possible, 'cause where will the local council get their tax,

with the community, living off the land, growing food and chopping wood with an axe,

the need and usage of government-owned services would become minute,

living simply and within your skills of the land, renewables used, an abundance of fruit,

food preserved in many forms, jams and chutneys, frozen meat,

enough food to last year-round to survive through winter, or in the heat,

the food produced off the land, tending the garden, and grown for nutrition,

the most important for life and health also said to aid in remission.

off grid homesteaders, don't need to take the flack,

with health as the focus, working outdoors to provide, lowering the need for prozac,
comments from shallow minded people need not be said,

the power of community, working together, I want to spread,

to include children in the transition, of conserving nature and our wildlife,

 

the tranquil setting amongst the seasons, watching the stars, that's my type of nightlife.

Author's Notes/Comments: 

This is my first time sharing my poetry, (after a few friends encouraged me that I should) please be kind and send your thoughts.

Also all words are opinions of myself in the modern world that we live in. 

This is not meant to cause offense, harm, upset to anyone, and if it does please understand that is not my intention.

 

Many thanks,

turn the tv up

Turn the TV Up

By JFarrell

 

You hear my dad shouting again, drunk;

You’ve heard it before;

You know what comes next;

And what do you do?

Turn the TV up.

 

You hear the first slap;

My mum screams,

Followed by 2 or 3 muffled thumps;

And what do you do?

Turn the bloody TV up.

 

You hear him start on the kids, shouts, slaps;

Muffled cries, screams…

Ah, finally, silence, they’ve stopped.

And what do you do?

Turn the f*cking TV up.

 

 

You see the bruises on my face the next day,

As you have many times before.

You smile and are polite, as if you don’t know what happened, you are complicit.

What you SHOULD have done, last night,

Was turn the f*cking TV off and call the police.

 

 

Author's Notes/Comments: 

a personal one that hurt a lot, but it NEEDS to be said

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Oh, My Heart

Oh, my heart,

Why do you serve me?

Why do you serve me so well?

Is it my spirit or convictions?

How do I feed you?

What is it that drives you to withstand the challenges I feed you?

It your strength coming from you, or me?

Who is the leader?

How do I repay you for giving me life?

How do I repay for understanding your gift?

Needing to know, that is enough.

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Blissfully ignorant

If a choice be given,

as it is, 

it is when one decides 

one chooses

blissfull ignorance

and lives life

without

Knowing, warning,

preparation

believing all is well

not worried

about the signs

there are too many

false positives

One that refuses

to be seen

Looked over,

poked and fondled

or to have themselves analyzed

as they would rather not know

if terminal,

if nothing at all

rather they are

blissfull, ignorant

they live, and do so

just to be alive

they accept that sickness

may come

calling

upon their time here

be it shorter

or long enough

but they don't want

to live knowing

waiting, fearing, praying

Watching

as loved ones watch them go

No, if given a choice

I choose to remain

blissfully ignorant

making the best

of what time I've left

and knowing only

that I am alive today 

Allowing nature to run it's course

because of course,

we all go

and going only brings us all back home

so, no... Don't tell me

I don't want to know.

Significance

 

........


(photo from usnews.nbcnews.com)


She wanted so much more,

Because private schooling

And a 200 square foot closet

Is not enough space,

For a heart that wants to feel

What life is really like.


What life is really like

Is when she walked into the dark,

And ate leftover twinkies

From rat-ridden garbage cans,

Where stray cats would claw 

Beneath the emptiness she felt.


Beneath the emptiness she felt,

The place where her memories began,

A place with lace-draped windows,

Gourmet meals, french pedicures,

Maids that emptied her trashcans,

And that became her dinnerplate.


And that became her dinnerplate,

Among a cluttered street,

In summertime the air was sweet,

Rotten fruit she couldn't eat,

And then awakened by a garbage truck,

As rodents scurried by.


As rodents scurried by 

A passing stranger sat to cry,

No more than twenty yards away,

She watched another left to die,

Then reminisced of life now passed,

She asked herself, but why?


She asked herself, but why

Is someone born into this life?

And me, another child the same 

Born with affluence so rife?

So ill prepared to see the truth,

She wanted so much more.


 

1:22 AM 8/2/2013  ©


............

Author's Notes/Comments: 

Photo is not of my creation.

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Disease.

It's a difficult moment

hearing those words.

Sitting in that rough hospital bed,

chilled from the draft coming in through the window.

Knowing you're never going to be the same.

Never be normal,

never function like everyone else ever again.

I'm young, this shouldn't happen.

growing up is difficult enough.

Having to listen to that doctor drone on on about all your new

restrictions.

I'm a fraction of myself,

ever since that day.

 

Author's Notes/Comments: 

Just a poem about bad news I've gotten recently.

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Green Tree Lodge

The name is ironic, I think, as I crunch down

The snow. Crunch—crunch. Treading snow.

Probably treading leaves under snow.

Treading leaves. Crunch.

 

The walls are purple. Disconcerting.

There are other people. They disconcert me.

These other people, they are not well.

 

The linoleum is grey,

Grey like the light outside

And the thoughts within.

 

The doctor sees me. I talk.

It is the same sordid story

And does not bear repeating here.

 

He asks me questions. I respond.

The answers do not bear repeating here.

I sink into my plastic chair. I am tired.

 

The air was cold on the way up the hill.

And I forget to take my inhaler.

My chest clutches at my heart.

 

My heart clutches at my mind—

The brittle shards of my mind.

Crunch. Crunch. Crunch.

Author's Notes/Comments: 

First one in a long while.

 

Please let me know if it works for you or doesn't, and why. Thanks.

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