Treatment and Diagnostic Streptococcus agalactiae Infection


Streptococcus agalactiae morphology culture and cell structure


Streptococcus agalactiae belongs to serological group B streptococcal (GBS) due to the antigen characteristics. Morphologically it is gram- positive, round -bearing chains in bacteria. On sheep blood nutrient media containing form around the colonies haemolysis (beta- hemolysis). Hemolysis is but usually less pronounced than that of group A streptococci. Visit:




Group B streptococcus (GBS), also known as Streptococcus agalactiae,was once considered a pathogen of only domestic animals, causing
mastitis in cows. Although asymptomatic vaginal carriage of GBS was described in 1935, the first report of GBS sepsis in a neonate was not reported until 1964. Since the 1970s, GBS is recognized as one of the most common causes of neonatal infectious morbidity and mortality in developed countries. GBS causes significant maternal and perinatal morbidity, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, and urinary tract and other infections in the adult nonpregnant population. The virulence of S. agalactiae is related to the polysaccharide toxin it produces. Immunity is mediated by antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide and is serotype specific. Several serotypes are known, including Ia, Ib, Ic, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.


Pathogenesis and clinical pictures


S. agalactiae colonizes in the body of some animals, including cow, sheep, and humans without causing any harm.  The habitat of this microorganism is largely confined to the intestine and vagina in human and the mammary gland of cows and sheep. This microorganism also colonizes in the genital and/or intestinal tract of about 10-30% of pregnant women.[7] However, some can actually cause diseases in their neonates or immunocompromised mammals. S. agalactiae is the common cause of inflammation or fibrosis of mammary glands and adjacent areas in cows and sheep colonizing the surface of the teat and
duct sinuses. This species causes invasive bacterial infections in mostly neonates and rarely immunocompromised adults, most notably septicemia,  neumonia, and meningitis colonizing different locations including the faces, the nose, the umbilical cord, the ears, feces. Infection is spread between cows and/or sheep through the milker's hand, contaminated instrument, and the mouth of calves. Once infected, these mammals are likely to lose their reproductive capacity due to blocked milk channels through inflammation. Infection in humans is through genital and/or intestinal tract of pregnant women either during pregnancy or delivery and from other neonates or members of the hospital staff in the maternity hospital. "The interaction of this bacteria
with host protein and and the entry into host cells thereby represent important virulence traits."






The neonatal sepsis due to GBS is because of the serious prognosis of the disease with a combination of penicillin G [(PENICILLIN GRUNENTHAL others) 300,000 IU / kg bw / day in 4-6 divided doses ] or ampicillin [(BINOTAL others) 200 mg / kg bw / day in 3 divided doses ] with an aminoglycoside [eg As gentamicin (Refobacin etc.) ] for at least 5 days treated (pronounced synergism between penicillins and aminoglycosides). Cephalosporins are an alternative to the penicillins. Isolates with reduced susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics or high levels of resistance to gentamicin come in Germany practically inexistent. The natural sensitivity of B-streptococci to penicillins but by a factor of 10 lower than that of group A streptococci. The percentage of isolates with resistance to erythromycin (Erythrocin, etc.) in all group B streptococci is given as approximately 10%.


In the detection of a B streptococcal colonization between the 35th and 37th week of pregnancy is suggested chemoprophylaxis at the time of birth. In question penicillin G are (initially 5 million IU iv and then 2.5 million IU iv every 4 hours until delivery) or ampicillin (2 g IV at the beginning and then 1 g IV every 4 hours until delivery). In penicillin allergy can clindamycin [(Sobelin others) 900 mg iv ] every 8 hours - not expressly approved in Germany with this indication) or erythromycin (500 mg administered intravenously every 6 hours) until delivery. With the use of erythromycin (about 10% in this country) should previously a sensitivity test can be performed to prevent a failure of prophylaxis of infection due to the resistance situation.


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Heart Drugs and Supplement Interactions A Problem - But What About Food?


Back in 1988, I was Editor of your book called The Medicine Chest muscles which were a straightforward examination of the particular interactions between drugs, products, and foods. It had plenty of good advice that hasn't improved much over the years so I have been surprised to receive a 'news' item that warned that will Warfarin when taken together with vitamin E and large doses involving vitamin C can lower effect of the drug.


I was certainly not surprised at the effect due to the fact I was writing about it over twenty years ago, but that it was media came as a surprise. Still, it never hurts for you to repeat a good piece of details and scientists never yield a chance for a grant to analyze something we already know.


This time around it is researchers at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute inside Salt Lake City, Ut who want to point out the dangers. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed medicine used to prevent blood clots from forming and directed at people with certain types of an infrequent heartbeat, those with prosthetic coronary heart valves, and those who have endured a heart attack.


The study contains interviews with 100 atrial fibrillation patients to determine their particular understanding of potential interactions in between supplements and medications like Warfarin. This is not really a review about interactions but connected with people's understanding of them and customarily people do not know enough about how precisely supplements and everyday food react with their medication. In this particular study, more than half were could possibly be potential interactions and they also located that of the 100 most-used supplements (vitamins, glucosamine/chondroitin, flaxseed oil and coenzyme Q10) 69 percent interfere with the Warfarin's effectiveness.


Warfarin and organic and dietary supplements "compete" inside the liver and this competition adjustment the way the blood thinner operates -- either intensifying it is active ingredients, thereby increasing the unwelcome possibility of bleeding, or by lowering its effectiveness, increasing the unfortunate risk stroke.


All true, as well as the lead researcher, is recommending that doctors do a far better job of teaching people about the dangers of mixing Warfarin with these products. Now I totally agree with him, but what he or she doesn't mention is that this certain drug is also seriously afflicted with certain foodstuffs. Given the actual average doctor knows about the diet I hold out little expect they will also pass on this advice in order that instead of increasing or lowering their drug prescription they can suggest changes to their affected individual's diet. In addition, the effectiveness of Warfarin is impacted by other medications - particularly antifungals, barbiturates and beta blockers which usually all decrease the drug's performance. Conversely, antibiotics, some diabetic drugs, gout medicines, tricyclic antidepressants and aspirin along with paracetamol - among others: all can increase the drug's effectiveness, making it more potent.



In Warfarin? Avoid These:

Warfarin is affected by a large dosage of vitamin E, vitamin Chemical, bioflavonoids and calcium and also a large intake of fats or maybe oils. If the diet is additionally high in vitamin K prosperous foods this can cause a great imbalance in the body which could cure the anticoagulant effect. It is necessary to allow your blood to clot normally, to protect your our bones from fracture and postmenopausal bone loss, to prevent calcification of the arteries and provide achievable protection against liver and prostatic cancer.


Vitamin K is actually a fat-soluble vitamin and them only a small amount is able to be residing in the body. It is destroyed simply by light and acids in addition to alkalis such as vinegar as well as baking soda. A scarcity of it can lead to increased our blood clotting time, easy bumps and excessive bleeding.


Considerable food sources include: environmentally friendly leafy vegetables including greens, Brussels sprouts, Swiss chard, green beans, asparagus, broccoli, kale and also cauliflower, cow's milk, eggs, fish hard working liver oils, green vegetables, kelp, hardworking liver, molasses, polyunsaturated oils, tomato plants


Everyone responds differently to help drugs, foods and nutritional supplements so if you have any worries, or if your diet will be high in vitamin K loaded foods, then you should check with your doctor how this is inside your medication.


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